## NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 8 How Do Organisms Reproduce

To help to understand this chapter better, we have provided you the NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 8 through an article. These solutions are solved by expert teachers who make sure that all students find it easy and understandable for them.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 7 Control and Coordination

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 7 – Control and Coordination has detailed solutions to help students prepare for exams. With these explanations, they can compare their answers with the sample responses provided by NCERT Solutions in order to increase self-confidence before taking an exam. The exercises are short enough so that you do not need a tutor or any other resource besides your own brain!

## NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

Searching for CBSE NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 6 is no longer necessary. Here, we provide you with answers and explanations to all the solutions of CBSE NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 6 (Life Processes).

## NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 – Periodic Classification of Elements provides detailed solutions to all the questions as per CBSE guidelines. The solutions are in sync with the NCERT textbook and have been solved by subject matter experts, in accordance with your understanding level of Grade Ten students.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 – Summary:

• Elements are classified on the basis of similarities in their properties.
• Döbereiner grouped the elements into triads and Newlands gave the Law of Octaves.
• Mendeléev arranged the elements in increasing order of their atomic masses and according to their chemical properties.
• Mendeléev even predicted the existence of some yet to be discovered elements on the basis of gaps in his Periodic Table.
• Anomalies in arrangement of elements based on increasing atomic mass could be removed when the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic number, a fundamental property of the element discovered by Moseley.
• Elements in the Modern Periodic Table are arranged in 18 vertical columns called groups and 7 horizontal rows called periods.
• Elements thus arranged show periodicity of properties including atomic size, valency or combining capacity and metallic and non-metallic character.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts

Have you tried NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts? These solutions are created by some of the topmost chemistry faculties in India and have been reviewed to ensure that they work well.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations

Understanding chemical equations and reaction is the foundation of Chemistry. As you read NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations, we’ll learn how to write an equation and balance it with various types of reactions. This content includes a free PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations that has been developed by our subject experts.

## Disaster Management Science Notes

Important Points

→ Disaster is the incidence that occurs suddenly causing heavy damage to life and property. The disaster can be man-made or due to natural reason.

→ On September 2019, there was a heavy downpour in Pune. This disaster has been experienced recently.
On 26th November 2008 there was attack at several places by the Pakistani terrorists. The stories about the deaths and damage caused by this disaster were seen in films and learnt about this from our elders.

→ Due to a heavy downpour in Pune, there was waterlogging in all the shallow areas. All the transport systems collapsed on that day. Large trees fell down injuring the people. The water logging causede condition like floods. Schools, colleges and offices were shut down. People were caught in troublesome situation.

→ On 26th November 2008 many innocent people lost their lives. There was tremendous damage caused to some of the important places like Taj Palace Hotel and Chabad house.

Disaster :

• Hazardous event that suddenly takes place in the surroundings is called disaster.
• The definition of disaster as given by United Nations : The sudden event that leads to the huge loss of life and property is called disaster.
• Natural disasters : Floods, wet and dry famine, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc. are caused due to sudden change in the environment causing great damage.
• Since these disasters are due to nature’s wrath, they are called natural disasters.
• Man-made disasters : When mankind needs natural resources for developmental purpose, environment gets damaged. Such disasters are due to man-made actions and thus they are called man-made disasters.

Effects of disasters :

• The great loss to life and property of the people.
• Different areas of life like economic, social, cultural, political, law and administration, etc. are affected due to sudden disasters.
• The life in the affected area is totally disturbed.
• Nature and duration of each disaster is different. The period of disaster decides whether it is short term or long-term.
• Disasters are caused due to different reasons. Each disaster has its own environmental impact.
• According to preliminary classification of disasters there are two main types of disasters, natural and man-made.

Second method of classifying disasters :

• Catastrophic disasters : Cyclones in Odisha, catastrophic earthquakes of Gujarat and · Latur, frequently buzzing cyclones in coastal Andhra Pradesh, etc.
• Disasters making the impact for long duration : Famine, various problems of crops, strikes of workers, rising levels of oceans, desertification, etc.

Disasters can be classified depending upon following main criteria.

• The extent of the damage caused.
• The period of disaster.
• The long term effects.
• The reason for the disaster.

Types of disasters :

There are three types of disasters, viz. geophysical, biological and man-made.

Geophysical :

• Geological : Earthquake, volcano, tsunami, landslides, landfall, erosion, alkalization, flooding, etc..
• Climatic: E.g. Hot and cold waves, snow storms, snowfall, cyclones, hailstorm, drought, flood, meteorite, sunspots, etc.

Biological :

• Animal-origin : Infectious viruses, bacteria (cholera, malaria, hepatitis, plague), insects,
bite of venomous animals, etc.
• Plant-origin: E.g. Forest fire, fungal disease spreading (Blister), weed (aquatic, carrot grass, common grass).

• Accidental or Unintentional : Toxic gases, ; Atomic test, Unplanned action, Accident.
• Intentional : War, fire, bomb blast, forced migration, terrorism, rapes, child labour.

→ The flood waters uproot the trees, the houses collapse due to surge of water. The fields get waterlogged. The water does not recede. The cattle die of asphyxiation by drowning. Since everything is under water, the process of decomposition begins at a higher rate. This may spread the epidemics of the diseases.

→ In dry famine, there is scarcity of water. The crops die as there is no proper irrigation. There is severe food shortage. Due to dearth of water, the cattle die and human beings are forced to migrate.

→ The earthquake is responsible for large scale devastation. The houses collapse. The roads are damaged making the transportation impossible. The electricity and water supply is disrupted due to damage. There is large scale damage to lives and property.

→ The largely spread fire of the dry grass, shrubs and trees in the forest due to heightened temperatures is called forest fire. The effect of forest fire on the environment is greatly devastating. Biodiversity is lost. Plants and animals die due to fire. The vegetation becomes dead as the plants turn into ash. The atmosphere is full of smoke and hence causes air pollution.

Effects of disasters :

Actual effects :

• Effects of every type of disasters are different.
• Floods : Collapsing of bridges, flooding of coastal villages, shortage of food.
• Earthquake : Collapsing of houses, developing cracks in land.
• Forest fire and drought : Adverse effect on the environment.

Effects on the economy of the nation and local leadership

• Huge expenses on the reconstruction of the destroyed structures.
• Long term effect on the economy.
• If local leadership is weak, the victimized citizens become confused.
• During disasters administrative problems arise.
• Local governing bodies too are affected.
• The Government departments also are unable to solve the problematic situations caused by the disaster.
• Entire system collapses as all the concerned departments are affected by disasters.

Nature and scope of disaster :

→ Some of the important aspects of the disaster become clear only when the nature and scope of the disaster is understood.

For this following aspects have to be studied thoroughly :

• Exact nature of the disasters.
• The changes in the nature before the onset of the disaster.
• Time period of impact of disaster.

The scope of the disaster is dependent on the following facts :

• Pre-disaster phase
• Warning phase
• Emergency phase
• Rehabilitation phase
• Recovery phase
• Reconstruction phase

→ Three sensitive phases of the disaster:.

 Phase of emergency Transitional Phase Reconstruction Phase Maximum lives can be saved by quick actions. The rehabilitation work starts. Highly complicated phase. Actions such as search and rescue operations, medical assistance, first aid, restoring communication services, removing the people from affected area, etc. Clearing of debris, restoring water supply, repairing roads, etc. Begins in transitional phase. Reconstruction of buildings and roads and restoration of water supply facilities. Estimating the gravity of disaster. . Bringing normalcy in public life. Restarting of farming practices. Different institutes offer the monetary/ other help. This help is distributed to victims. Lengthy phase of reconstruction. Victims are offered with the permanent means of earning livelihood. Soothing the mental stress of victims. Rehabilitation of the victims.

→ Most of the natural disasters have taken place in the Asian continent and region of Pacific Ocean, causing huge of loss to the life. These disasters are caused due to natural imbalances created by human beings, in the pursuit of development and the economic progress. Environmental degradation is the leading cause to natural calamities.

→ Population explosion has resulted into many problems. After the Second World War, the natural conditions on the earth have gradually changed due to human interventions. Different causes such as economic inequality, racial and religious differences have caused terrorism, abduction, social differences which in turn result into instability in nations and man-made calamities.

→ Atomic energy plants are used for generation of nuclear energy. But they emit hazardous radiations. E.g., the accidental leakage in atomic energy plant at Chernobyl, Russia. During production of atomic energy radiation leakage and allied accidents may happen.

→ Disaster management is the essential action that has to be undertaken by each nation and its citizens. By direct participation of citizens in disaster management and by different disaster management schemes, hazardous after effects are reduced. These schemes are dependent on every location, time and nature of the disaster.

Disaster management :

→ Effective short term or long term disaster management is necessary in minor and major disasters. The disaster management should involve public participation. Disasters are suddenly forcing us to deal with them, but by disaster management techniques, the losses can be minimized. In managing the after effects of disasters, there should be arrangements to cope up with disastrous effects or there should be ways to make citizens capable to face and fight against the consequences. .

Objectives of disaster management :

• Saving human life from disasters. Helping them to move away from the place of disasters.
• Essential commodities to be supplied to the affected people. This will help to reduce the gravity of disaster.
• To bring back the conditions to normalcy.
• Rehabilitation of the affected and displaced victims.
• Protective measures for future in order to develop capability to face the disasters in future.

Disaster management :

→ Disaster management is divided into pre disaster management and post-disaster management. Through scientific and careful observations and analysis of previous data, suitable action plans are developed for the disasters that might come in future. Preventive measures, rehabilitation and reconstruction is included in such plans.

Pre-disaster management:

• Pre-disaster management means measures taken to rescue people or to keep preparedness before the disaster strikes. It includes following points:
• To identify the disasterprone areas.
• Through predictive intensity maps and hazard maps, the information should be collected about the probability of future disaster’s intensity and probable sites of disasters, respectively.
• Learning by ourselves and then imparting special training to people to tackle with future disasters.
• Making general public aware about disaster management by training them through programmes. Spreading the message through mass media, etc.

Post-disaster management :

→ Post-disaster management means helping the victims of disasters in all possible ways, after they are affected. Rescue work is done by local survivors. Controlling centres and help centres are established according to the type of disaster.

→ Materials provided from the control centres for the victims are categorized, and distributed the same to victims with continuous review of the help.

Main aspects of disaster management cycle :

• Preparation : For possible future disasters, a plan for minimizing the destruction is kept ready. This is called preparation for the disaster.
• Redemption : Planning is done to minimize such damage when disaster strikes.
• Preparedness : In case of disaster, the general public and administration should immediately rise for action. This planned action is called preparedness.
• Impact of disaster : After the disaster recedes, its intensity is studied. Its impact is analysed along with disaster management.
• Response : Just before the disaster and immediately after the disaster, the response of people is analysed in this step.
• Resurgence: Resurgence is an important link between emergency measures and national progress. It is a step showing extent of welfare and rehabilitation work done after the disaster. The progress of nation also becomes clear after analysing resurgence.
• Restoration : The return of the normalcy after the disaster is called restoration. The restoration time depends upon the type of disaster.

→ Natural disasters cannot be avoided. But by proper management, the loss can be minimized. Man-made disasters can be avoided if care is taken in our actions and behaviour. It is the ethical responsibility of all human beings, to help each other during disasters.

Structure of Disaster Management Authority :

→ The Government has established an authority for management of disasters. Indian Government has also passed Disaster Management Act, 2005. The following chart shows control and coordination of disaster management carried out from national level to village levels :

→ District Disaster Management Authority: Planning, coordinating and controlling the implementation of rehabilitation programme is done by District Collector. He is responsible for such programmes and schemes.

Functions of Disaster Management Authority :

• Giving the necessary instructions.
• Assessing whether the instructions are followed or not.
• Reviewing the entire system.
• Controlling the actions.
• Planning and executing the plans.
• Designing schemes for each district, separately for each type of disaster and getting those sanctioned from state-level authorities.

District-wise Disaster Control Unit :

• Establishment of district control unit is done immediately either after the impact of disaster or due to the warning of forthcoming disasters.
• Help and guidance from various agencies like army, air force, navy, telecommunication
• department, paramilitary forces, etc. is taken to review the various aspects of disaster.
• The control unit also coordinates with various voluntary organizations that help in disaster management.

The international organizations that work in the field of disaster management :

• United Nations Disaster Relief Organization.
• United Nations Centre for Human Settlements.
• Asian Disaster Reduction Centre.
• Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre.
• World Health Organization.
• United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

National Disaster Response Force :

• The army jawans constitute the National Disaster Response force.
• It was established as per the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
• 12 divisions of this force work in the country, Its headquarter is located at Delhi and the army takes any required action throughout all the states of India.
• In Maharashtra, Jawans of State Reserve Police Force carry out responsibilities of National Disaster Response Force.
• Website : http://www.ndrf.gov.in gives the · information of National Disaster Response Force.
• First aid is the primary help given to a sick or injured person until full medical treatment is available.

→ The injured person should be helped and kept in a resting position in which he or she is at ease. Depending upon the nature of the disaster, first aid given may be different. But the most important is timely rescue which can help the victim to survive.

First Aid and Emergency Action :

First Aid :

→ When suddenly any disaster takes place, the help given to the victims before the medical treatment is available, is called first aid. This knowledge of first aid becomes useful to save one’s life.

→ In day-to-day life, we come across many such disastrous incidences where such help is needed. Varieties of disasters like accidents, stampede, injuries in fighting, electric shock, burns, heat shock, snake bite, dog bite, fire due to electric short circuit, epidemic of any disease, etc. are the disasters in which first aid becomes essential

→ In disasters, the victim’s condition is to be taken into account before starting any furst aid. As per the condition, various transportation methods like cradle method, carrying on back, carrying on two hands are to be followed.

→ Sometimes we face the disaster due to our own unawareness. We have to watch out for the symbols that warn us against the potential dangers. Such symbols have to be taken into account.

→ First Aid Kit : Material necessary for first aid is kept in the first aid kit. Such first aid kit should be available at every place such as in schools, colleges and offices, etc.

The necessary material in first aid box :

• For wrapping the wounds: Bandage strips of different size, Wound gauze, Triangular and circular bandage, Medicated cotton, Band aid
• For cleanliness; Hand gloves, Clean and dry cloth pieces, Soap
• Medicines : Antiseptic (Dettol/Savlon), Petroleum jelly
• Safety pins, Blade, Small pins, Needle, Scissors
• Thermometer, Torch.

Mock Drill :

Nature of mock drill :

• Mock drill is the activity which is carried out by creating virtual or apparent situation of disaster.
• It is carried out to check the preparedness if the disaster approaches.
• The responses of the people, the quickness of actions, etc. can be analysed prior to the actual disaster happens.

→ Trained personnel check execution of plan designed for disaster redressal. They are responsible for the training of people in case of disasters. The whole exercise helps to check the efficacy of the system prepared for disaster redressal.

→ Mock drill is organized in various schools to create the awareness among the school children in case of disasters. Fire fighters, police force and some voluntary organizations organize mock drills.

Objectives of Mock Drill :

• Evaluating the response of the common people to the disaster.
• Improving the coordination between various departments that work for the disaster control.
• Identifying one’s own abilities at the time of disaster.
• Developing the ability to respond quickly to disaster.
• Checking the competency of the planned actions.
Assessing the possible errors and risks.

Important notes for our safety

• Not to crowd and push each other while using staircase in the school.
• Important help-lines should be remembered and used whenever need arises : Police 100, Fire fighting
• force 101, Disaster Control Unit 108, Ambulance 102, Child helpline : 1028, etc.
• Always follow the traffic rules. Looking first at left and then at right sides while crossing the road.
• Not to touch any unclaimed object.
• Not to cause chaos at the crowded places.

## Social Health Science Notes

Important Points :

→ Due to advent of technology, our life styles are changing. Each person is becoming more and more self-centred. They are not concerned with anything other than their daily routine and favourite jobs.

→ Along with physical health, importance of cleanliness and staying fit keeps the social and mental health of a person. Concept of health encompasses, physical, mental and social health.

Social health :

Factors affecting the social health :

• Satisfying basic needs of people – food, clothing, shelter, medicines
• Residential areas
• Education and job opportunities
• Transport facilities
• Social security
• Education
• Social treatment
• Social environment of the surroundings.
• Social and Physical conditions of the surrounding
• Playgrounds
• Gardens
• Water
• Toilets
• Financial status
• Political conditions (views)

→ Social health : The ability of a person to establish relationship with other persons is … called social health One of the important characteristic of social health is the ability to change one’s own behaviour according to changing social conditions.

The factors necessary for good social health:

• Strong personality, having large number of friends and relatives.
• Proper time management, trust in others, respect and acceptance for others.

Factors disturbing or endangering the social health :

Mental Stress :

• Due to population explosion, there is increased competition in every aspect such as education,
• Due to nuclear families and working parents, children are facing the problems of loneliness and mental stress. Parents and especially mother being away from home has resulted into stress in children.
• There is unequal treatment given to girl and a boy from the same house. The discrimination between brother and sister causes mental stress to girls due to such gender inequality.
• In community, the adolescent girls are faced with the problems like teasing and molestation.

→ All the people are facing the stress due to ever increasing disorder, crime and violence. People are in the quest of getting ‘fast and easy money’ become part of the system of crime. This is a social illness which is very hazardous effect of changing attitudes of people.

→ In adolescent age group, there is tremendous pressure of peers. This peer-group influence can be at times wrong, if the friends are not good. Instead of following advice of parents, the adolescent girls and boys tend to listen to the wrong advices of their friends.

→ Due to lack of parental supervision, children in their early age start using tobacco, cigarette, gutkha, alcoholic drinks, drugs, etc. This may be due to peer pressure.

→ The children fall into the trap of addictions either due to peer-group pressure or due to false symbol of high standard living. Sometimes they try to imitate their elders.

→ The addictive substances are hazardous, and they cause long term effects. Some are temporarily intoxicating substances obtained from the plants. While some of the chemical ingredients in them can permanently damage the human nervous system, muscular system, heart, etc. Some tobacco like substances are carcinogenic in action especially on the mouth and lungs.

Chronic diseases :

→ Chronic diseases such as AIDS, TB, leprosy can spoil the social health. Care of patients of mental disorders and that of the old persons is very crucial to keep the social health in proper order.

→ Due to changing pattern of our life style, there is increase in old age homes. In order to maintain the social health, we have to care for the older people in our community. Similarly, mentally disturbed patients should be given love and care along with prompt medical help.

→ Addiction leads a person to hell. One can often see men under the influence of alcohol, fallen on the streets. The drug addicts too are very unhygienic and dirty. They also have criminal tendencies. Alcohol and drug cause loss of conscious thinking among the addicts, They cannot think rationally and logically.

→ Their thought process is hampered and thus though he is an intelligent human being, his intellect is totally lost. People like these are curse to the society. Such pitiful condition of man is absolutely improper.

→ If alcohol is manufactured in a wrong way by using any substrates, it forms the poisonous chemicals. Such chemicals can be lethal too.

→ Any kind of alcohol is basically produced by the fermentation of the substrate. If the method adapted for making alcohol is wrong, then it can also make lethal solution that causes death after consuming the alcohol.

→ Alcohol consumption can cause long term effects too. The entire family of the alcoholic is devastated. Due to alcohol, entire nervous system, and especially brain, liver and kidneys are harmed permanently. Health is affected for ever.

→ In the growing age if alcohol is consumed, the brain development does not take place in a proper way. All the faculties such as learning, memory, thinking, and reasoning are reduced because of alcohol. Along with disturbed physical health, mental and social health is also affected due to alcoholism.

Communication Media and excessive use of Modern Technology :

→ Modern technology and communication media have drastically changed the lives of people. Mobile phone has become an addiction that can endanger the social health. People remain constantly on the phones.

→ Due to addiction to electronic media, various physical problems like tiredness, headache, insomnia, (inability to sleep) forgetfulness, tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ears), joint pains and problems in vision are on rise. This may be due to radiation of cell phones.

→ Such radiations penetrate the bones of children causing damage. Person who are on computers and internet continuously become solitary. They remain aloof and do not have contact with his or her relatives and members of society. This leads to self-centredness. They lose the sensitivity towards others.

→ Note: As mentioned in the textbook, (Page no. 104, 2nd paragraph) persons addicted to electronic media do not develop autism. Autism is an Inborn problem caused due to change in the genes. If embryo faces oxygen deficiency, the baby is born with autism. It is a hereditary disorder. Children will not get autism by excessive use of cell phones.

→ However, some research reveals that the radiations of the cell phone can cause genetic mutations in sperms or ova in the parents which may give rise to greater percentage of abnormal children through heredity.

→ The cartoon serial, ‘Sinchan’ was banned in 2008 by the information and broadcasting ministry, on the grounds of undesirability of its content.

→ The ministry believed that parents were worried about the unruly comments and acts shown on the show. The cartoon series showed a naughty five-year-old boy making the life of his parents miserable. The series was having a negative impact on kids. As many parents requested the Government, the serial was banned

→ Online Blue Whale or Blue Whale Challenge is an internet game which originated in Russia. This is very dangerous game. It reportedly consists of a series of tasks assigned to players by administrators over a 50-day period.

→ In these ‘tasks’ there are challenges like watching horror movie alone, inflict wounds on the body, leaving the house and going anywhere, etc. After performing 50 tasks like these, the final challenge requires the player to commit suicide.

→ Many adolescents have lost their lives due to Blue Whale game. In India too, five children have committed suicide due to blue whale challenge. This game was invented in 2013 by Philipp Budeikin, a 21-year-old former psychology student. He is now arrested in 2016 and is in Russian prison. This game is banned in India.

→ The children who spent solitary life, the children whose parents are not around and those who are in deep stress usually fall into the traps like Blue Whale Game.

→ One must always remember, if you are in stress, talk to your elders, parents or teachers. The problems can be solved by logical and rational thinking. Our life is precious, it should not be wasted.

→ Negative computer and cell phone games cause children to become negative in their thoughts and actions. They are tremendously time consuming. The concentration in the studies is lost and memorization, understanding of the subjects also become a problem. Some activities like these cause financial loss and it may cost life too. Therefore, one should be vigilant while using such media.

→ The internet has such huge information that it can provide information for every question. But its use should be done for only positive of everyone. Thus they prefer to give payment to the servants or helpers than taking help of their own old parents or in laws.

→ Such paid people do not take care of the children as there is no bond of love between them. Then they beat and commit atrocities on these young babies. Such clips are circulated on the social media.

→ All the above three questions, show a condition of changing social structure. The persons who indulge in beating or harassing are mentally sick people who themselves are under mental stress.

The symptoms of mental ill health :

• Mentally ill persons are those who are indulging in such destructive and unnatural activities.
• Selfiecide persons constantly take selfies as they are not aware about their surroundings and the risks that may make them victims. Person indulging in selfie is not aware about the world around and the risks.
• Persons who commit domestic violence.
• Suicidal thoughts, sending messages to others and then committing suicides. Such sick people actually need support and they want others to sympathise with them.
• Spending lots of time on television, computer or cell phone without having conscience about time management is also a sign of mental illness.

Cybercrimes :

• Cheating people by misusing personal information.
• Fraudulent transactions using bank cards.
• Cheating people in on-line purchases.
• Hacking of information.
• Opening fake Facebook accounts and harassing others.
• Internet piracy.
• Causing attack by internet virus.

→ ‘Cybercrime unit’ : This is the department that collects the details, and investigate the cybercrime and thereby find the criminal with the help of the internet. This department is under the police department. It has all experts of the field of internet technology.

→ IT Act-2000 :

• The IT Act is enacted since 17th October 2000.
• It was amended in 2008.
• Cybercriminal gets the imprisonment for 3 years or fine up to 5 lakh as a punishment.
• Maharashtra state is the first state to start cybercrime unit which is controlling the cybercrimes.

The periods of music, drawing or P.T. break the boring routine. The tired brain gets rejuvenated by music or drawing. In P.T., we are taken to the playground where we can play and exercise. These activities reduce the stress, therefore we wait for the periods of music, etc.

Stress management :

Ways to manage the stress :

• Laughter club : People gather together and relieve their mental stress by laughing out loudly. It is thought that by laughing together, the stress is reduced.
• Communicating with all the people who are significant in our life especially with our parents.
• Expressing our feeling with near and dear ones and noting down our feelings.
• Hobbies like collecting curios, photography, reading, cooking, sculpturing, drawing. rangoli, dancing, etc. can relieve the stress in a major way.
• Diverting the energy and mind towards the positive thinking and removing negative thoughts needs to be practised for a stress free life.
• Learning and listening to the music and singing reduces the stress.
• Physical and outdoor games, exercise, discipline.
• Yoga, meditation, deep breathing, yogic sleep techniques.
• Massaging, visiting the spa too help to relieve the stress.
• Balanced and good food, and meditation.
• Enjoying nature, gardening, bird watching, lingering in nature, rearing a pet.

Mental problems :

• Depression
• Frustration

Treatment :

• Medical guidance and help
• Counselling
• Psychotherapy
• Help to be taken from NGO.

Institutions that offer help :

→ Unified Movement against Tobacco : 45 different well-known organizations such as WHO, Tata trust, etc. have started the movement to control the tobacco consumption. The guidance is also provided to the activists who are active in anti-tobacco campaigns.

→ Salaam Mumbai Foundation : The children from slum area are given opportunities in the field of education, sports, arts and business. The organization also helps the children in field of education and helps them to improve their health and lifestyle. This organization helps each school to take the oath of freedom from tobacco.

→ Government Schemes : Children in distress or facing any type of trouble can call on the helpline set by the Government. Proper help and guidelines are offered to children if they narrate the problem on this helpline.

## Cell Biology and Biotechnology Science Notes

Important Points :

• The structural and functional unit of the body is called a cell.
• Tissue is a group of cells that performs a similar and definite function. E.g. The muscular tissues in the body perform contraction and extensions thereby helping in locomotion.
• The conducting tissues of the plants like xylem and phloem transport the water and food respectively.
• The technique of tissue culture and genetic engineering has been studied last year. Tissue culture is ‘Ex vivo growth of cells or tissues in an aseptic and nutrient-rich medium’.
• Genetic engineering and its use has also been studied under, ‘Introduction to biotechnology’.
• Various step-wise processes are done while performing the tissue culture. .
• These processes are primary treatment, reproduction/cell division/multiplication, shooting, or rooting, primary hardening, secondary hardening, etc.

Assign names in the figure given below:

→ Tissue Culture : Tissue culture is the technique in which ‘ex vivo growth of cells or tissues in an aseptic and nutrient-rich medium is done. While performing experiments of tissue culture, a liquid, solid or gel-like medium prepared from agar, is used.

→ Such medium supplies nutrients and energy necessary for tissue culture technique. Different processes are to be done while performing tissue culture, viz. primary treatment, reproduction or multiplication, shooting and rooting, primary hardening, secondary hardening, etc. From the source plant, required tissues are taken out and all the processes are carried in an aseptic medium in laboratory.

Cell Biology/Cytology :

→ The study of structure, types and organelles of the cell, cell division and some other aspects together is known as cell biology or cytology. In the field of human health, there are revolutionary changes due to advances of cell biology.

→ Research Institutes for dedicated research in cell biology:

• National Centre for Cell Science (http://www.nccs.res.in) at Pune
• Instem (http://www.instem.res.in) at Bengaluru

Stem Cells :

Special types of cells present in the body of multicellular organisms that can give rise to cells of all other types are called stem cells:

• The zygote formed after fertilization of gametes contains mass of cells, which are similar cells. These are the stem cells. They can give rise to new organism.
• Stem cells can be used to produce new tissues in laboratory.
• Stem cells also play an important role in wound healing.

Differentiation of stem cells :

• Stem cells can form any type of cell during the further development.
• The formation of different types of tissues to perform specific and different functions is called differentiation of the stem cells.
• Once the new tissues are formed their capacity to differentiate is lost. Later they form cells which are similar to them.

stem cells found :

• In the umbilical cord present in the uterus of mother.
• In the blastocyst stage of embryonic development.
• In red bone marrow.
• In blood.

→ Stem cell preservation : Stem cell samples from umbilical cord blood, red bone marrow or blastocyst are taken and are kept in small, sterile vials, kept in liquid nitrogen at – 135°C to – 190°C. In this way, the stem cells can be preserved for a longer use.

→ Stem cell research :

• The revolutionary event that occurred in biotechnology is stem cell research.
• Stem cell research will cause the fundamental changes in the medical science.
• Stem cells are of two types depending upon the source, viz. embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells.

Embryonic stem cells :

→ Embryo is formed by divisions of zygote. These embryonic cells continuously divide by mitosis. These cells are stem cells.

→ But by 14th day of conception cell differentiation starts. This differentiation causes formation of 220 different types of cells, e.g. osteocytes (bone cells), hepatocytes (liver cells), and neurons, etc. from the stem cells.

→ Before the differentiation, the embryonic cells are called embryonic stem cells. These stem cells are primary, undifferentiated cells having ability to multiply. They are called parent cells of all types of human cells. The property to develop into different types of cells is called pleuripotency. This property is present in the stem cells.

→ Stem cells can be collected well before the beginning of differentiation and cultured with certain biochemical stimuli in laboratory. Based on the type of stimulus, stem cells transform themselves into desired type of cells, later the tissues and organs.

For adult stem cells following sources are used:

• Red bone marrow
• Blood
• Cord blood (after the birth)
• Placenta.

Uses of Stem Cells:

 Regenerative Therapy Organ Transplantation Cell therapy: Replacing the dead cells in patients of diabetes, myocardial infarction, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. In organ – failure such as kidney and liver,’ some tissues can be formed by stem cells and transplanted in a needy patient. The formation of blood cells in patients of anaemia, thalassemia, leukaemia, etc.

Organ transplantation :

→ If less efficient or completely functionless organ of the body is changed, the life of such patient can be saved. Kidney transplantation or skin transplantation can be done on the patients if there is suitable donor for the same.

→ Investigations about the factors such as blood group, diseases, disorders, age, etc. are done for donor and recipient. This matching is done before the transplantation.

→ Healthy donor should be available For kidney and skin, live donor can be taken but liver, heart, eyes can be donated posthumously, i.e. after death.

Organ and Body donation:

→ If the organs of deceased person are in good condition and functional, then they can be used for donation. Organ donations can save the life of other needy patients.

→ Due to progress in science, such donations are possible. The awareness about such posthumous donations should increase so that people can donate their bodies voluntarily.

→ Organ donation : By organ donation the critical patient’s life can be saved. Blind persons can again get the vision by getting a eye donation. Liver, kidneys, heart, heart valves, skin, etc. can be donated. Body donation : Body can be made available for research in medical studies, after body donation.

→ Organ transplantations are under the control of Transplantation Human Organs Act, 1994 and its further amendments of 2009, 2011 and 2014. These acts make the transplantation or donation process transparent and no one can be cheated.

→ The techniques of bringing about improvements in living organisms by artificial genetic changes and by hybridization for the welfare of human beings is called biotechnology.

→ Biotechnology can be used in the fields of agriculture, horticulture, medical field, diagnosis of diseases etc. Biotechnology is used in the production of cash crops, improvement in varieties of cash crops, increase in abilities of plants to withstand environmental stresses, vaccine production, early diagnosis of congenital diseases, organ transplant, cancer research, production of artificial skin, cartilage, etc. in laboratories. It includes the techniques of genetic engineering and tissue culture.

→ Natural characters of some species may not have all useful features. Some of the characters may be deleterious. In order to avoid such varieties, GMO or Genetically Modified Organisms are created. For this purpose, the DNA is changed in the crops. The modified crops then possess required features.

→ Following changes have occurred in the crops due to biotechnology. The varieties that can withstand the changes in the environment can be created. E.g., constantly changing temperature, dry and wet droughts, climate change and some similar stressor-resistant varieties are produced through genetic engineering.

→ GM crops are resistant to insect pests, pathogens, chemical weedicides, etc., due to their changed genome. This reduces the use and the cost of chemical pesticides which are harmful.

→ Due to use of seeds of GM crops, there is improvement in nutritive value of crops. Therefore now, seeds of a better quality crops are being produced.

→ There is also a decrease in loss of crops. Subsequently there is increase in the cultivable land and agriculture. Some insect resistant crops such as Bt Cotton have been produced which is widely used in Maharashtra

Biotechnology and its Applications :

→ Biotechnology: The technology that brings about artificial genetic changes and hybridization in organisms for human welfare is called biotechnology.

• Cytology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetic engineering are different branches
of science that are included in biotechnology.
• In the field of agriculture and pharmacy major progress has been done due to biotechnology
• Improving the agricultural yield, production of high-class varieties of crops and suitable farm products through tissue culture are the aspects in which biotechnology is largely used.
• Pharmaceutical experiments to produce antibodies, vitamins, and hormones like insulin are taking support of biotechnological principles.

Inclusion of main areas in biotechnology :

• Microbiology : Using microbial abilities to form yoghurt from milk and alochol from molasses.
• Biochemistry : By increasing the productivity of the specific cell to manufacture antibiotics and vaccines, etc.
• Molecular biology : Use of bio-molecules like DNA and proteins in human welfare.
• Genetic engineering : By techniques of genetic manipulations, the plant and animal varieties and products of desired quality can be obtained. E.g. From genetically modified bacteria, human growth hormone ard insulin can be produced.
• Non-genetic biotechnology : By using entire cell or tissue, non-genetic biotechnology experiments are done. E.g. In tissue culture, production of hybrid seeds, etc. such methods are uset.

Benefits of Biotechnology:

• Increasing the per hectare yield of the crop land, irrespective of the limitations.
• By development of resistant varieties, the expenses on disease control become less.
• Fast fruit setting varieties are developed that increase the per annum yield.
• Varieties which can withstand changing environmental parameters such as variable temperature, water-stress, changing fertility of soil, etc. are created. These are stress resistant varieties.

Development of Biotechnology in India :

• Establishment of the National Biotechnology Board : 1982.
• Department of biotechnology under the ministry of science and technology : 1986.

Institutes under the control of this department are as follows:

• National Institute of Immunology
• National Facility for Animal Tissue and Cell Culture
• National Centre for Cell Science
• National Brain Research Centre
• Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.
• Facilities of higher education and research.

Commercial Applications of Biotechnology :

Animal Husbandry :

→ In animal husbandry, there are two main methods used :

• Artificial Insemination
• Embryo transfer

→ By these methods, the quantity and quality of animal products such as milk, meat and wool are both improved. Stronger animal varieties that can perform hard work have been developed.

Human Health:

• Biotechnology for human health management takes into consideration two important tasks, these are diagnosis and treatment of the diseases.
• Identifying the role of gene, in disease of a person. Diagnosis of diabetes and heart diseases can now be done even before the onset of symptoms.
• AIDS and dengue can be diagnosed within few minutes due to biotechnology. Treatment in such cases can be done at the earliest.
• Through biotechnology, medicines needed for the treatment can be manufactured. E.g. with the help of bacteria, human insulin can be made now.
• The human insulin gene is incorporated in bacterial genome for this purpose.

→ Various vaccines and antibiotics are also made in this way. On 5th July 1996, sheep ‘Dolly’ was the first animal clone born in Scotland. She was developed by a diploid nucleus of udder cells of Finn Dorset variety of sheep.

→ This nucleus was introduced into enucleated ovum (haploid nucleus was removed) of Scottish sheep. The ovum was then implanted in the uterus of Scottish sheep. Dolly showed characters of Finn Dorset sheep.

Industrial Products / White Biotechnology:

→ Manufacturing alcohol by using transgenic yeast on sugarcane molasses is one of the example of white biotechnology. Similarly many other industrial chemicals are produced through less expensive processes by substituting them with biotechnology.

Environment and Biotechnology:

• For treatment on sewage and solid wastes, microbial processes are used to speed up decomposition. If such organically rich sewage is released in natural water bodies, there is oxygen depletion in water.
• This is because the organic matter is oxidized with the help of dissolved oxygen in the water, Depletion in oxygen level adversely affects the aquatic life.
• Therefore, sewage is first oxidized by microbial techniques and then it is released
• Solid organic waste material is treated with microbes to produce compost on a large scale.
• Some new concepts in biotechnological methods are bio-remediation, biopesticides, biofertilizers, biosensors, etc.

→ In the process of bioremediation absorption or destruction of toxic chemicals and harmful pollutants is carried out with the help of plants and microorganisms. Phytoremediation is the method of bioremediation in which plants are used for this process.

Examples of phytoremediation:

 Plant/Bacteria Function Pseudomonas Cleaning the hydrocarbon and oil pollutants from soil and water. Fern Pteris vitata Absorbing the arsenic from the soil. Genetically modified variety of Indian mustard Absorbing selenium from soil. Sunflower Absorbing uranium and arsenic. The bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans Being a radiation resistant organism, it absorbs the radiations from radioactive debris.         , Grasses like alfalfa, clover and rye Used in phyto-remediation.

→ Food Biotechnology : Microorganisms are used for the manufacture of food items like bread, cheese, wine, beer, yoghurt, vinegar, soya sauce, etc.

DNA fingerprinting :

→ In every organism, the nucleotide sequence in the DNA molecule is unique. In human beings as a fingerprint is unique for every person, similarly DNA is also unique. Therefore, the technique to identify any person can be proved by his or her DNA.

• DNA fingerprinting technique is mainly used in investigations of forensic sciences.
• To establish identity of the criminal.
• To identify parents of any child in case of disputed parentage.
• In India DNA fingerprinting is done at “Centre for DNA fingerprinting and Diagnostics”, located at Hyderabad.

Cleaning of Oil Spillage in Oceans :

• Through the oil tankers or oil wells, there is oil spillage in the marine waters. This adversely affects the marine flora and fauna.
• By using oil-digesting and fast multiplying bacteria, such oil spills can be cleared in a lesser cost and without affecting the marine environment.
• Dr. Anand Mohan Chakravarti discovered the use of such bacteria.

Important Stages in Agricultural Development :

Green revolution :

• The improved methods for harvesting maximum yield from minimum land are collectively called green revolution.
• Large sector of Indian population has been saved from starvation due to green revolution.
• In green revolution, ‘methods of improvised dwarf varieties of wheat and rice, proper utilization of fertilizers and pesticides and appropriate water management have led to increased production of food grains.
• New varieties of various crops have been developed through different agricultural research institutes.

Various research institutes and laboratories :

→ Under ICAR, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, there are many research institutes located throughout India. These institutes perform active research regarding various cash crops, fishery and other agricultural related products.

• Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi
• National Citrus Research Institute, Nagpur and allied branches (ICAR-CCRI)
• Indian Institute of Sciences
• National Pomegranate Research Institute, Solapur.

White revolution :

→ The cooperative dairy movement that was undertaken with the help of biotechnology to produce abundant milk and dairy production, is called white revolution.

→ At Anand in the State of Gujarat, the cooperative movement was laid by Dr. Verghese Kurien. He took this movement to the greatest heights. AMUL (Anand Milk Union Limited) which was founded by him, has now become an international brand.

→ The self-sufficiency in dairy business was achieved due to white revolution. Many experiments done for quality control, newer dairy products and their preservation.

Blue revolution :

→ Blue revolution is production of various useful aquatic organisms by methods of aquaculture.
In East Asian region, fish species are raised in the farm ponds. This practice of rearing aquatic organisms is called aquaculture which is common in this region. Rearing fish is called pisciculture and that of marine organisms is mariculture.

→ Cultivation of the fishes and prawns (shrimps), marine organisms and sea weeds is also practised in India.
Government of India encourages the aquaculture activities. Government has launched the program “Nil-Kranti Mission-2016′ (NKM-16). Subsidies at 50% to 100% are offered in this case.

→ Aquaculture and mariculture can be carried along Indian coastline on a large scale. Fresh water fishes like rohu, catla and marine and brackish water prawns and lobster, etc. can be cultured on large scale.

Fertilizers :

 Organic (Manure) Chemical (Fertilizers) Improved water holding capacity of the soil. Soil conservation takes place. Decrease in fertility of soil due to excessive use. Due to humus formation, upper layer of the soil is formed. Toxic for soil bacteria, cattle, human. Essential elements (N, P, K) are easily available due to activities of earthworms and fungi. Contamination of the environment.

→ Insecticides:

• Plants have natural immunity to fight against infections.
• To eradicate the pests, insecticides are used on plants. This use can be harmful for the environment.
Natural pest control measures such as insectivorous frogs and birds keep the pest population under control.
• But in an attempt to increase the yield, man excessively uses the pesticides and insecticides.
• These are toxic to all resident organisms.
• They also show biomagnification, in which the concentration of the insecticide goes on increasing according to the food chain.
• The insecticides like DDT, malathion, chloropyriphos also contaminate water and soil.

→ Organic farming:

• When the chemical fertilizers and pesticides are not used, only local, sturdy varieties are cultivated, and a natural balance is maintained, then such type of farming is called organic farming.
• Organic farming and organic products are in demand these days.
The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides cause many environmental problems due to pollution.
• The soil fertility is decreased, the insect-pests become resistant and cause more damage.
• Organic farming can help to save the environment from such effects.

→ Apiculture :

• Apiculture is rearing of honey bees to obtain products such as honey and wax. In such practice, artificial hives are placed.
• By such practice, the honey can be extracted without causing any harm to the honey bees or their hives.

→ Cultivation of Medicinal Plants :

• In Ayurveda, different medicines are traditionally obtained from plants.
• The rich biodiversity of India was conducive in gathering such medicinal herbs from forests.
• Now due to deforestation, the medicinal plants and herbs are becoming rare. Hence their cultivation is to be done.

→ Fruit Processing:

• Fruit processing can form following products : Chocolates, juices, jams and jellies. Since ‘fruits are perishable agro-produce, processing is a must. .
• Different methods of fruit processing are keeping in cold storage, drying, salting, air tight packing, preparing jams (muramba), condensing, etc.

## Introduction to Microbiology Science Notes

Important Points :

→ Many microbes are useful to us, such as bacteria which are used for making curds from milk, yeast used to ferment the batter of bread, bacteria used for making other milk products, bacteria and fungi used for making antibiotics. The bacteria are even used for pollution control.

→ Milk products, cheese, cocoa, pickles made from vegetables, wine and other beverages, bread, probiotic substances and cattle feed are produced with the help of microbes.

Applied Microbiology :

→ Study of the enzymes related to some prokaryotes and eukaryotic microbes, proteins, applied genetics, molecular biology, etc. comes under applied microbiology.

→ Applied microbiology is used for manufacturing various food products and medicines, using microorganisms on a large scale and hence it becomes useful for everybody.

Industrial Microbiology :

→ When microbiology is used for commercial, economic, social purpose and environment related processes, then it is called industrial microbiology. By sustained research on various microbes, various products are produced on large scale by the industrial microbiology.

The main features of industrial microbiology :

→ Using fermentation process, different products such as bread, cheese, wine and raw material for chemical reactions is produced.

→ Solid waste management and pollution control can be done with the help of microbes for garbage management and pollution control.

→ When the milk is converted into yoghurt, a small quantity of Lactobacilli culture is introduced into the warm milk. These bacteria bring about change in the constituents of the milk by fermentation and coagulation. This way yoghurt is produced.

Products :

Dairy Products:

• By preparing various milk products, one can preserve milk for a long time.
• Cheese, butter, cream, kefir, yoghurt, etc. are some important milk products.
• While making these products water content and acidity of the milk is changed. Due to this, texture, taste, aroma and flavour are improved.
• For milk products usually Lactobacilli bacteria are used. Sometimes bacteria in the milk are used for further processes.
• Cheese is produced by using fungi.

Basic process for production of milk products:

• Initial pasteurization of milk to eradicate other harmful bacteria.
• Later fermentation using Lactobacilli.
• Lactose sugar present in the milk Converted into Lactic acid.
• Lactic acid coagulates the milk proteins.
• Compounds with taste and flavour are formed, such as Diacetyl having buttery flavour.

Yoghurt production :

Method of industrial production of yoghurt :

→ Condensed milk powder mixed with milk for more proteins Milk is then boiled Cooled a little.
Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacterial strains added to it in 1 : 1 proportion.
Streptococcus Formation of lactic acid.

→ makes the proteins to gel out → Yoghurt becomes dense. Lactobacilli Formation of Acetaldehyde like compounds Give characteristic taste to yoghurt Yoghurt mixed with various fruit juices → Impart different flavours. E.g. Strawberry yoghurt, banana yoghurt Pasteurization Increases shelf life of yoghurt and its probiotic properties.

Butter :

→ Butter is of two types : Sweet cream and cultured. For large scale production of cultured butter, microbes are used.

Cheese production :

Method for cheese production :

• Cheese is produced from cow milk in the entire world. Intially. chemical and microbiological tests of milk done.
• Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus + colours added to the milk.
• Milk turns sour → whey (water in yoghurt) is removed to make milk dense.
• Protease enzyme from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese.
• Previously, rennet enzyme, from alimentary canal of cattle was used.
• Whey is completely separated from yoghurt.
• To summarise, the steps of process of cheese formation: cutting the solid yoghurtinto pieces → washing → rubbing → salting → mixing of essential microbes + pigments + flavours → Cheese is pressed and cut into pieces → stored for ripening.

→ Mozzarella cheese is used for pizza. Cheddar and Swiss, Blue cheese etc. are used for burgers, Sandwich and other western foods use different types of cheese. E.g. Goat, Cheese, Camembert, Cotija, Chèvre, Feta, Emmental, Gouda, Taleggio, Parmigiano, Regginano, Manchego and Monterey, Parmesan are some of the cheese consumed world-wide especially in the Europe and America.

→ A type of cheese depends upon the milk from which it is produced. The acidity of that cheese, the colours and flavours added, the calcium content present in it are all such factors which decide the type of cheese. Some cheeses are very soft like cream cheese, while some are very hard e.g. Parmesan cheese. Thus, according to taste, flavour and the texture, the cheese become different.

→ In Probiotic food, Lactobacilli bacteria are added. This addition increases the nutritional value of the food. The harmful bacteria, Clostridium are destroyed due to probiotics. They also increase the intestinal flora of bacteria that synthesise the vitamins inside the human intestine. The disease resisting power is also increased due to probiotics.

Probiotics :

→ Milk products containing active bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casel, Bifidobacterium bifidum, etc. form probiotics. All the above microbes help in maintaining the intestinal bacteria which help the digestion. They also decrease the harmful bacteria such as Clostridium.

→ Probiotic products : Various products are called probiotic, such as yoghurt, kefir, sauerkraut (pickle of cabbage) and other pickles, dark chocolate, miso soup, oils, corn syrup. artificial sweeteners, sea food microalgae e.g. Spirulina, ‘Chlorella, Blue green algae, etc.

Benefits of probiotics :

• The colonies of useful bacteria are formed in the alimentary canal.
• The harmful microbes can be controlled by reducing their metabolic activities.
• Probiotics improve resistance to fight against diseases.
• Some harmful substances are formed during metabolic activities. Their bad effects are lowered due to probiotics.
• Due to antibiotic treatment, useful bacteria become inactive. Probiotics revitalize them by making them active again.
• Probiotics are used for treatment of diarrhoea.
• In poultry treatment too, probiotics are used.

• The dough is made by mixing together, the baker’s yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, water, salt and other necessary materials.
• The yeast helps in the fermentation and brings about the conversion of sugar into CO2 and ethanol.
• Due to released CO2 the bread becomes spongy.
• Yeast is of two types : Compressed yeast containing carbohydrates, fats, proteins, various vitamins, and minerals. This is used in commercial bakery industry.
• Dry, granular yeast used for domestic use.
• Products produced with yeast become nutritive.
• Vinegar, soya sauce and monosodium glutamate (Ajinomoto) are also produced by microbial fermentation.
• Vinegar Production : Vinegar is 4% acetic acid (CH3COOH).

Uses of vinegar :

• Impart sour taste to food materials.
• Preservation of pickles, sauce, ketchup. chutneys, etc.
• By fermentation of fruit juices, maple syrup. sugar molasses, starch of the roots, etc. with the help of
• yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol is obtained.

Preparation of vinegar :

→ Ethanol + Acetobacter and Glucanobacter mixture → microbial degradation → Acetic acid and other by-products → rarefaction of mixture → Separation of Acetic acid → Acetic acid → bleached with potassium ferrocynide → Pasteurization → vey small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed →Vinegar is produced.

Soya sauce :

→ Fungus Aspergillus oryzae is used to ferment the mixture of flour of wheat or rice and soyabean to produce soya sauce. Production of beverages : Coffee, cocoa, wine and cider are the beverages that are produced from Calfea arabica, Theobroma cacao, grapes and apples respectively. For this production various microbes are used.

→ Different enzymes secreted by the glands associated with the digestive system, help in the digestion of the food. The complex food components are broken down to simple absorbable substances due to the enzymatic action.

→ The pepsin and renin secreted by the stomach; amylase, trypsin and lipase secreted by the pancreas and peptidases and other enzymes secreted by the intestinal glands in the small intestine are the enzymes which bring about catalytic activity and help in the digestion.

→ Microbial Enzymes :

• The enzymes obtained by the activity of microbes are used in the industrial processes.
• These microbial enzymes are better than the chemical.catalysts.
• Microbial enzymes work at the low temperature, pH and pressure.
• Energy is saved in the processes using – microbial enzymes.
• There is no need of erosion-proof instruments for the processes.
• Only specific processes are carried out by the enzymes.
• Unnecessary by-products are not formed during the reactions.
• Purification is not needed and hence expenses on purification are reduced.
• Elimination and decomposition of waste material is avoided.
• Enzymes can be reused.
• Microbial enzymes are thus eco-friendly.

→ Some examples of microbial enzymes are:

• oxidoreductases
• transferases
• hydrolases
• lyases
• isomerases
• ligases

→ Industries that use microbial enzymes :

• Detergents: Used in cleaning process to remove dirt at low temperature.
• Obtaining glucose and fructose syrup from corn flour using enzymes of bacilli and Streptomyces.
• Industries for cheese manufacture, plant extracts, textile, leather, paper, etc.

→ Some microbes are used in the production of amino acids. These amino acids are used in making commercial products. L-glutamic acid, citric acid, gluconic acid, lactic acid and itaconic acid are such amino acids which are prepared by action of certain microbes on some plant sources.

→ Xanthan gum :

• Xanthomonas species is used to make Xanthan gum by fermentation of starch and molasses.
• It is useful due to properties like solubility in hot and cold water and its high density.
• It is used in the production of pigments, fertilizers, weedicides, textile pigments, tooth pastes, high quality paper, etc.

→ Substances obtained by microbial processing are as follows:

• Citric, Malic and Lactic acid
• Glutamic acid, Lysine, Tryptophan
• Nycin and natamycin
• Ascorbic acid (Vit. C), B12, B2
• Beta carotene, lycopenes, xanthenes, lutein
• Polysaccharides, glycolipids
• Vanillin, Ethyl butyrate (fruit flavour), · Peppermint flavour, essence of various fruits and flowers
Xylitol, aspartame

→ Their functions are respectively as follows:

• To make the medium acidic
• For binding the proteins
• Microbial restrictor
• Antioxidants, vitamins.
• Edible colours
• Emulsifiers
• Essence
• Artificial sweetener (low calorie)

→ Carbon compounds obtained from some bacteria and fungi which are able to destroy or prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms are called ‘antibiotics’.

→ It is dangerous to take antibiotics at our own will. They should be taken only when a doctor prescribes to take those. One should not purchase any antibiotic from medical stores without a prescription from a docton One should not use antibiotics according to own will to treat common diseases like a throat infection, common cold or influenza.

→ The dosage of the antibiotics as told by doctor, should be completed, and should not be left half way even if one feels well. Even if we find antibiotic very effective, we should not suggest antibiotics to other people. Antibiotics whose expiry date is over, should never be used.

Antibiotics :

→ Antibiotics are medicines obtained from different types of bacteria and fungi by carrying out certain processes. Some human diseases and veterinary diseases have been controlled due to antibiotic treatment.

→ Antibiotics which are used against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria:

• Penicillin
• Cephalosporins
• Monobactam
• Bacitracin
• Erythromycin
• Gentamycin
• Neomycin
• Streptomycin
• Tetracyclines
• Vancomycin, etc.
• Rifamycin – against tuberculosis.

→ Bio-degradable substances such as animal and plant wastes, dung and urine of the animals, farm wastes, etc. are decomposed in the biogas plant.

→ The best quality manure and fuel is obtained from the biogas plant. The biogas contains methane, carbon dioxide and HS in small proportions.

→ The methanogenic bacteria present in the excreta of the animals bring about the decomposition of the waste matter.

Microbes and Fuels :

→ Methane is obtained from microbes present in the agricultural and industrial waste, by microbial anaerobic decomposition. This reduces the problem of solid waste management.

→ Fermentation of molasses by yeast, Saccharomyces produces ethanol which is a clean, smokeless fuel.

→ The fuel of future is hydrogen gas. It is released when bacteria perform bio-photolysis of water. Bacteria perform the process of photoreduction to release hydrogen.

→ Some industrial chemicals are produced through microbial process. e.g. Some raw materials that are needed for the industrial processes, such as various alcohols, acetone, organic acids, fatty acids, polysaccharides. For plastic and food products some of these materials are used.

→ Bio-fuel : Biofuel is a good and renewable type of energy. They are easily available and in abundance, hence they are called reliable fuels of the future. Biofuel is available in the following three forms :

• Solid : Coal, dung, crop residue
• Liquid : Vegetable oils, alcohol
• Gaseous : Gobar gas and coal gas.

→ Microbial Pollution Control: With the help of suitable microbes, the problem of environmental pollution is tackled. Biogas, plant, compost production, sewage treatment, etc. are the measures in which microbes are used.

→ Land-filling sites:

• The type of degradable waste which is created in the urban areas is dumped in the land fillimg sites which are ‘away from the residential areas.
• The large pits are dug and then lined with plastic sheets. Used for dumping compressed waste.
• It is covered with certain bioreactor substances and specific biochemicals.
• Microbes present therein decompose the biodegradable materials.
• The pit is sealed with soil slurry after it is full
• Compost is formed by decomposition after few days. This is removed and such land filling sites can be reused after removal of compost.

→ Sewage Management:

• In cities, the sewage is sent to processing plant and is treated with microbes.
• Microbes that carry out decomposition, are mixed with sewage. Such microbes are able to destroy pathogens as well as decompose any compounds.
• Upon decomposition of the carbon compounds present in sewage, microbes release methane and Co,
• The phenol oxidizing bacteria decompose Xenobiotic chemicals present in sewage.
• The sludge formed in this process, is used as fertilizer.
• Environmentally safe water is released after microbial treatment done for the sewage water
Some microbes bring about bioremediation of environment, that are used for treating sewage pollution.

→ Clean Technology :

→ Microbes are used to combat increasing soil, land ard water pollution. Pollutior. control can be done by using microbes that digest hydrocarbons.

→ Microbes used in clean technology :

 Microbes performing tasks of cleaning Function Some microbes Remove the sulphur from fuels. Thiobacilli and Sulphobacilli Conversion of heavy metals into compounds before leaching Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB): Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis To treat oil spills by destroying the pyridines and other chemicals. Conversion of hydrocarbons into CO2 and water. Vibrio, Ideonella sakaiensis Decomposition of PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate Polyester) Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Nocardia, Actinoplanes (all bacteria) Decomposition of rubber from garbage. Acidophillium spp. and Acidobacillus ferroxidens Control of soil pollution caused by acid rain. Geobacter Conversion of salts of uranium into insoluble salts.

→ There are various causes of oil spills occurring in the marine waters. For example, accidents of oil tankers that transport crude oil, spillage through offshore oil wells, pollutants released through effluents from shore, etc. The oil spills form an oil film on the surface of water. It causes depletion of oxygen in the water. It also contains hazardous hydrocarbons which results in the death of fish.

→ Microbes and Farming :

→ The leguminous plants have root nodules in which the bacteria, Rhizobium resides symbiotically with the plants such as peas, beans, soyabeans, etc. These bacteria supply nitrates and nitrites and amino acids to the plants. They have capacity to convert nitrogen in the soil and air to form such compounds. This is called bacterial nitrogen fixation.

→ In return the plants provide energy in the form of carbohydrates and the place to stay in the root nodules to the bacteria. Some more bacteria and blue green algae such as Anabaena, Nostoc and Azotobacter, are free living in the soil, they too perform similar function of nitrogen fixation Both types of bacteria make the soil fertile and reduce the demand of chemical fertilizers.

→ Microbial Inoculants :

• Microbes-containing inoculants are produced by process of fermentation.
• They are used for spraying on seeds before sowing. Some of them are released into plants.

→ Benefits of microbial inoculants :

• The nutrients are supplied through the microbial inoculants which help in growth of plants.
The nutritional quality of crops is increased.
• Soil pollution caused by chemical fertilizers is prevented by injecting solution containing Azotobacter and artificial nitrogenase. Such methods are adopted in organic farming.
• Chemicals like fluoroacetamide are mixed with soil as chemical pesticides in agriculture. Such harmful substances can be eradicated by using microbes.

→ Bioinsecticides :

• Through biotechnology, bacterial and fungal toxins are directly integrated into plants to protect them from fungal and pest attacks.
• Insects avoid such plants as they are secondarily toxic.
• Some species of fungi and viruses are also used as pesticides. Spinosad, produced through fermentation is used as a blopesticide.
• Biodegradable plastic, polylactic acid is used for garbage bags. This material is eco-friendly.